Own Publications


Behringer V, Stevens JMG, Leendertz FH, Hohmann G, & Deschner T (2017) Validation of a Method for the Assessment of Urinary Neopterin Levels to Monitor Health Status in Non-human-primate Species. Front. Physiol. 8:51.

De Nys, H. M., Löhrich, T., Wu, D., Calvignac-Spencer, S., and Leendertz, F. H. (2017). Wild African great apes as natural hosts of malaria parasites: current knowledge and research perspectives. Primate Biol., 4, 47-59.

Müller, N.; Heistermann, M.; Strube, C.; Schülke, O.; Ostner, J. (2017). Age, but not anthelminthic treatment is assiciated with urinary neopterin levels in semi-free ranging Barbary macaques. Scientific Reports 7: 41973

Springer, A., Fichtel, C., Al-Ghalith, G. A., Koch, F., Amato, K. R., Clayton, J. B., … Kappeler, P. M. (2017). Patterns of seasonality and group membership characterize the gut microbiota in a longitudinal study of wild Verreaux’s sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). Ecology and Evolution.



Berghänel A, Heistermann M, Schülke O & Ostner J (2016). Prenatal stress effects in a wild, long-lived primate: predictive adaptive responses in an unpredictable environment. Proc. R. Soc. B 283: 20161304.

Springer, A., Mellmann, A., Fichtel, C., & Kappeler, P. M. (2016). Social structure and Escherichia coli sharing in a group-living wild primate, Verreaux’s sifaka. BMC ecology, 16(1), 1.

Springer, A., & Kappeler, P. M. (2016). Intestinal parasite communities of six sympatric lemur species at Kirindy Forest, Madagascar. Primate Biology, (2), 51–63.



Heistermann M & Higham JP (2015). Urinary neopterin, a non-invasive marker of mammalian cellular immune activation, ishighly stable under field conditions. Scientific Reports 5: 16308.

Higham JP, Kraus C, Stahl-Henning C, Engelhardt A, Fuchs D & Heistermann M (2015). Evaluating Noninvasive Markers of Nonhuman Primate Immune Activation and Inflammation. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 158: 673-684.

Springer, A., Razafimanantsoa, L., Fichtel, C., & Kappeler, P. M. (2015). Comparison of three short-term immobilization regimes in wild Verreaux’s sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi): Ketamine-Xylazine, Ketamine-Xylazine-Atropine, and Tiletamine-Zolazepam. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 46(3), 482-490.

Springer, A., Fichtel, C., Calvignac-Spencer, S., Leendertz, F. H., & Kappeler, P. M. (2015). Hemoparasites in a wild primate: infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesia in a lemur species. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 4(3), 385-395.



Preparatory work


Danish LM, Heistermann M, Agil M & Engelhardt A (2015). Validation of a Novel Collection Device for Non-Invasive Urine Sampling from Free-Ranging Animals. PLoS ONE: DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0142051.



Hämäläinen A, Heistermann M, Fenosoa Z & Kraus C (2014). Evaluating capture stress in wild gray mouse lemurs via repeated fecal sampling: method validations and the influence of prior experience and handling protocols on stress responses. General and Comparative Endocrinology 195: 68-79.

Müller N, Ostner J, Schülke O & Walter L (2014). Towards the non-invasive assessment of MHC genotype in wild primates – analysis of wild Assamese macaque MHC-DRB from fecal samples. American Journal of Primatology 76: 230-238.

Nunn CL, Skully EJ, Kutsukake N, Ostner J, Schülke O & Thrall PH (2014). Mating competition, promiscuity, and life history traits as predictors of sexually transmitted disease risk in primates. International Journal of Primatology 35: 764-786.

Nunn CL, Thrall P & Kappeler PM. (2014). Shared resources and disease dynamics in socially structured populations. Ecological Modeling 272: 198-207.

Schülke O, Heistermann H & Ostner J (2014). Lack of evidence for energetic costs of mate-guarding in wild male Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis). International Journal of Primatology : DOI 10.1007/s10764-013-9748-y.

Young C, Schülke O & Ostner J (2014). How males form coalitions against group rivals and the Pandit/van Schaik coalition model. Behaviour 151: 907-934.

Young, C.; Majolo, B.; Heistermann, M.; Schülke, O.; Ostner, J. (2014). Responses to social and environmental stress are attenuated by strong male bonds in wild macaques. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111: 18195-18200.



Heesen M, Rogahn S, Ostner J & Schülke O (2013). Food abundance affects energy intake and reproduction in frugivorous female Assamese macaques. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 67: 1052-1066.

Macdonald S, Schülke O & Ostner J (2013). The absence of grooming for rank-related benefits in female Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis). International Journal of Primatology 34: 571-584.

Schaumburg F, Mugisha L, Kappeler P, Fichtel C, Kock R, Kondgen S, Becker K, Boesch C, Peters G & Leendertz F. (2013). Evaluation of non-invasive biological samples to monitor colonization in Great Apes and lemurs. PloS One 8:e78046.

Calvignac-Spencer S, Merkel K, Kutzner N, Kuhl H, Boesch C, Kappeler PM, Metzger S, Schubert G & Leendertz FH (2013). Carrion fly-derived DNA as a tool for comprehensive and cost-effective assessment of mammalian biodiversity. Molecular Ecology 22: 915-924.




Fürtbauer I, Heistermann M, Schülke O & Ostner J (2012). Fecal androgen excretion and fetal sex effects during gestation in wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147: 334-339.

Harper KN, Fyumagwa RD, Hoare R, Wambura PN, Coppenhaver DH, Sapolsky RM, Alberts SC, Tung J, Rogers J, Kilewo M, Batamuzi EK, Leendertz FH, Armelagos GJ & Knauf S (2012). Treponemapallidum infection in the wild baboons of East Africa: distribution and genetic characterization of the strains responsible. PLoS One 7: e50882.

Hilgartner R, Fichtel C, Kappeler PM & Zinner D (2012). Determinants of pair-living in red-tailed sportive lemurs (Lepilemur ruficaudatus). Ethology 118: 466-479.

Kappeler PM & Fichtel C (2012a). Female reproductive competition in Eulemur rufifrons: eviction and reproductive restraint in a plurally breeding Malagasy primate. Molecular Ecology 21: 685-698.

Kappeler PM & Fichtel C (2012b). A 15-year perspective on the social organization and life history of sifakas in Kirindy Forest. pp. 101-121 in: Kappeler PM & Watts DP (eds) Long-Term Field Studies of Primates. Springer, Heidelberg.

Knauf S, Batamuzi EK, Mlengeya T, Kilewo M, Lejora IA, Nordhoff M, Ehlers B, Harper KN, Fyumagwa R, Hoare R, Failing K, Wehrend A, Kaup FJ, Leendertz FH & Matz-Rensing K. (2012). Treponema infection associated with genital ulceration in wild baboons. Veterinary Pathology 49: 292-303.

Schülke O & Ostner J (2012). Ecological and social influences on sociality. In: Mitani, J, Call J, Kappeler P, Palombit R & Silk J (eds.) The Evolution of Primate Societies, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.



Berghänel A, Ostner J, Schröder U & Schülke O (2011). Social bonds predict future cooperation in male Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Animal Behaviour 81: 1109-1116.

Girard-Buttoz C, Higham JP, Heistermann M, Wedegärtner S, Maestripieri D & Engelhardt A (2011). A non-invasive method for the assessment of energetic condition in monkeys. PLoS One 6(3): e18042.

Higham J, Girard-Buttoz C, Engelhardt A & Heistermann M (2011). Urinary C-peptide of insulin as a non-invasive marker of nutritional status: some practicalities. PLoS One 6(7): e22398.

Ostner J, Heistermann M & Schülke, O (2011). Male competition and its hormonal correlates in Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis). Hormones and Behavior 59: 105-113.

Wevers D, Metzger S, Babweteera F, Bieberbach M, Boesch C, Cameron K, Couacy-Hymann E, Cranfield M, Gray M, Harris LA, Head J, Jeffery K, Knauf S, Lankester F, Leendertz SA, Lonsdorf E, Mugisha L, Nitsche A, Reed P, Robbins M, Travis DA, Zommers Z, Leendertz FH & Ehlers B. (2011). Novel adenoviruses in wild primates: a high level of genetic diversity and evidence of zoonotic transmissions. Journal of Virology 85: 10774-10784.



Clough D, Heistermann M & Kappeler PM (2010). Host intrinsic determinants and potential consequences of parasite infection in free-ranging red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142: 441-452.

Fürtbauer I, Schülke O, Heistermann M & Ostner J (2010). Reproductive and life-history parameters of wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis). International Journal of Primatology 31: 501-517.

Leendertz SA, Metzger S, Skjerve E, Deschner T, Boesch C, Riedel J & Leendertz F (2010). A longitudinal study of urinary dipstick paramenters in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Côte d´Ivoire. American Journal Primatology 71: 1-10.

Schülke O, Bhagavatula J, Vigilant L & Ostner J (2010). Social bonds enhance reproductive success in male macaques. Current Biology 20: 2207-2210.



Girard-Buttoz C, Heistermann M, Krummel S & Engelhardt A (2009). Seasonal and social influences on fecal androgen and glucocorticoid excretion in wild male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Physiology & Behavior 98: 168-175.

Mass V, Heistermann M & Kappeler PM (2009). Mate guarding as a reproductive tactic in sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). International Journal of Primatology 30: 389-409.